Class
Soul Binder
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Skills

Eska
Lvl: 10 Attack Magic CD: 1.5 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 352 Range: 6 Cast Time: 5.5

Casts magic upon a specific area within a radius of 4m, dealing to the enemy units in the area with M. ATK*2200% neutral M. DMG per second for 3s. The carried [Warm Wind] can change the damage type. You can use [Esma] within 5s upon using

Eska - Enhance
Lvl: 7 Passive

[Eska] DMG increases by 35%

Esma
Lvl: 10 Attack Magic CD: 3 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 500 Range: 6 Cast Time: 5

Deals to an enemy unit with [Estun]*130% Neutral M. DMG, and the carried [Warm Wind] can change the damage type. Every 5 points of Luck on the hero can raise DMG by 1%

Esma - Big
Lvl: 6 Passive

If the target is an L Size unit, [Esma]'s damage increases by 30%

Esma - Small
Lvl: 4 Passive

If the target is an S Size unit, [Esma] will cause the targets to be unable to attack for 3s (Invalid against Mini/Mvp)

Heart Lock
Lvl: 5 Buff CD: 25 sec Skill Delay: 1.5 sec SP: 300 Range: 6 Cast Time: 3 Fixed Cast Time: 1

Pauses the skill cooldown time of all enemy units within 4m for 10s. This effect cannot be dispersed. (Only valid against players)

Heart of Darkness
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 24 sec Skill Delay: 2 sec SP: 300 Range: 6 Cast Time: 5 Fixed Cast Time: 1

Causes one enemy to be frenzied, and the ranged damage skill it casts will deal to an enemy unit with 30% DMG for 12s. The effect cannot be dispersed. (Invalid against Mini/Mvp)

Kaizel
Lvl: 5 Passive

The friendly unit given a soul from the hero can be revived automatically upon death, restoring 50% HP and 50% Sp

Kaizel - Kyrie Eleison
Lvl: 5 Passive

The revival triggered by [Kaizel] can cause the target to carry a [Kyrie Eleison] that can withstand 99 times for 5s

Mass Hysteria
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 9 sec Skill Delay: 1.5 sec SP: 150 Range: 6 Cast Time: 4.5

Puts all enemy units within a range of 4m to have a 100% chance to fall into [Fear] status for 3s

Mass Hysteria - Pressure
Lvl: 5 Passive

If the target resists [Fear], [Mass Hysteria] causes the target's Phy. DMG Bonus and M. DMG Inc. to reduce by 30% for 6s

Soul Cycle
Lvl: 5 Passive

The souls applied upon the enemy units or teammates, which have a 15% chance to return to the target again when the duration ends

Soul Judgement
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 30 sec Skill Delay: 2 sec SP: 400 Range: 6 Cast Time: 8

Drains the spirit of an enemy out and fixes it at the current location, and the hero can inherit some of the enemy's original attributes. Every time when the Mind Body is taking damage, 40% of the damage will be carried over to the original body. Mind Body cannot attack or move for 10s (Only valid against players)

Soul Judgement - Cooldown
Lvl: 4 Passive

[Soul Judgement]'s cooldown time is shortened by 4s

Soul Judgement - Purgatory
Lvl: 6 Passive

The received damage of [Soul Judgement]'s Mind Body from Demi-Human increases by 30%

Soul of the Blacksmith
Lvl: 5 Buff CD: 18 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 200 Range: 6

Summons the soul of the strongest Blacksmith in the past, applying upon the teammate with a [Over Thrust] effect and raising their Phy. ATK by 25% for 150s. One target can only be given with one soul, and one soul can only be given to one target. The CD duration is fixed and cannot be reduced

Spirit of Forgiveness
Lvl: 5 Passive

If there is a Mind Body created by the hero, when the Occultist is taking damage, 50% of the damage will be carried over to Mind Body (This part of the damage will not be passed to the original body anymore)

Spiritual Vision
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 42 sec Skill Delay: 1.5 sec SP: 200 Cast Time: 4 Fixed Cast Time: 0.5

After using this skill, all enemy targets' armor will be considered Ghost. You can reveal the hidden units nearby. Lasts 15 seconds

Spiritual Vision - Duration
Lvl: 6 Passive

[Spiritual Vision] duration extends by 6

Withered Curse
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 28 sec Skill Delay: 2 sec SP: 250 Range: 6 Cast Time: 4.5 Fixed Cast Time: 0.5

Curses the enemies in the area. Enemies within a 5-meter range lose 1%% of Max HP per second and cannot be revived on-site upon death. Lasts 14 second(s). When it is effective on MVP and Mini Monsters, the HP loss will decrease to a fixed amount.

Withered Curse - Worsen
Lvl: 6 Passive

[Withered Curse]'s loss HP per second increases by 0.3% additionally

Eska
Lvl: 10 Attack Magic CD: 1.5 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 352 Range: 6 Cast Time: 5.5

Casts magic upon a specific area within a radius of 4m, dealing to the enemy units in the area with M. ATK*2200% neutral M. DMG per second for 3s. The carried [Warm Wind] can change the damage type. You can use [Esma] within 5s upon using

Eska - Enhance
Lvl: 7 Passive

[Eska] DMG increases by 35%

Eske
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 16 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 200 Range: 6 Cast Time: 4

It is used upon a single enemy unit, which enlarges the victim's size, turning them into an L Size. The target's Phy. DMG Inc. will increase by 20%, but their Phy. DMG Reduc. and M. DMG Reduc. will reduce by 20% for 10s (The size effect is invalid against Mini/Mvp). You can use [Esma] within 5s upon using

Aesir

• Eske - Weak [Eske] Target's Phy. DMG Bonus reduces by 2%
• Eske - Duration [Eske]'s duration +1s
Esma
Lvl: 10 Attack Magic CD: 3 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 500 Range: 6 Cast Time: 5

Deals to an enemy unit with [Estun]*130% Neutral M. DMG, and the carried [Warm Wind] can change the damage type. Every 5 points of Luck on the hero can raise DMG by 1%

Esma - Big
Lvl: 6 Passive

If the target is an L Size unit, [Esma]'s damage increases by 30%

Esma - Small
Lvl: 4 Passive

If the target is an S Size unit, [Esma] will cause the targets to be unable to attack for 3s (Invalid against Mini/Mvp)

Estun
Lvl: 20 Attack Magic CD: 1.5 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 240 Range: 6 Cast Time: 6

Applies upon one enemy unit with a neutral M. DMG of M. ATK*2800%. The [Warm Wind] carried by the hero can alter the damage attribute. If the target is an M Size unit, it will additionally apply a [Stun] status for 3s additionally. You can use [Esma] within 5s upon using

Aesir

• Estun - Enhance [Estun] DMG +5%
• Estun - Magic Pen. If the target is an M Size unit, [Estun] reduces the target's M. DEF by 5% for 5s
Eswoo
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 16 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 200 Range: 6 Cast Time: 4

It is used upon one single enemy unit, which reduces the target's size to S Size while rendering the Move SPD to be unable to surpass 100%% for 8 s (Size effect is invalid to Mini/Mvp). You can use [Esma] within 5 seconds after using the skill.

Aesir

• Eswoo - Slowdown [Eswoo] will reduce the target's Move SPD by 10%
• Eswoo - Weaken When [Eswoo] is in effect, target's ATK and M. ATK reduce by 4%
Heart Lock
Lvl: 5 Buff CD: 25 sec Skill Delay: 1.5 sec SP: 300 Range: 6 Cast Time: 3 Fixed Cast Time: 1

Pauses the skill cooldown time of all enemy units within 4m for 10s. This effect cannot be dispersed. (Only valid against players)

Heart of Darkness
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 24 sec Skill Delay: 2 sec SP: 300 Range: 6 Cast Time: 5 Fixed Cast Time: 1

Causes one enemy to be frenzied, and the ranged damage skill it casts will deal to an enemy unit with 30% DMG for 12s. The effect cannot be dispersed. (Invalid against Mini/Mvp)

Kaahi
Lvl: 10 Passive

Every time when the hero and the friendly's soul carrier loses Sp, it restores HP by the lost amount*30 points; Every time when the enemy's soul carrier loses HP, it additionally reduces Sp by the lost amount*0.01 points

Kaina
Lvl: 10 Passive

When resting on-site or playing dead, the hero restores 10%% Max HP and Sp additionally per second. The hero obtains this restoring amount in every 12s when not in the Resting status. Raises the hero's own Max HP and Sp by 10%

Aesir

• Kaina - Restore [Kaina]'s restore amount in non-resting status increases by 4%
Kaizel
Lvl: 5 Passive

The friendly unit given a soul from the hero can be revived automatically upon death, restoring 50% HP and 50% Sp

Kaizel - Kyrie Eleison
Lvl: 5 Passive

The revival triggered by [Kaizel] can cause the target to carry a [Kyrie Eleison] that can withstand 99 times for 5s

Kaupe
Lvl: 5 Passive

Raises the Occultist's Flee by 30 points, and Occultist has a 15% chance to flee from M. DMG

Aesir

• Kaupe - Delude [Kaupe]'s Flee +4 points additionally
• Kaupe - Recovery [Kaupe] heals the hero's own lost HP by 5% when the hero flee an ATK
Mass Hysteria
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 9 sec Skill Delay: 1.5 sec SP: 150 Range: 6 Cast Time: 4.5

Puts all enemy units within a range of 4m to have a 100% chance to fall into [Fear] status for 3s

Mass Hysteria - Pressure
Lvl: 5 Passive

If the target resists [Fear], [Mass Hysteria] causes the target's Phy. DMG Bonus and M. DMG Inc. to reduce by 30% for 6s

Mind Erosion
Lvl: 10 Passive

The soul applied upon the enemy will reduce the target's Max HP by 15% and Received Healing Bonus by 50% (Invalid against Mini/Mvp)

Mind Pierce
Lvl: 10 Passive

When dealing M. DMG to the target using class skills of a Occultist, each point of the hero's Luck applies 200 points of True DMG

Aesir

• Mind Pierce - Luck [Mind Pierce] Additionally calculates 10 points of Luck Effect
• Mind Pierce - Enhance [Mind Pierce]'s True DMG +5%
Soul Cycle
Lvl: 5 Passive

The souls applied upon the enemy units or teammates, which have a 15% chance to return to the target again when the duration ends

Soul Gathering
Lvl: 20 Buff CD: 30 sec Skill Delay: 2 sec SP: 300 Cast Time: 3 Fixed Cast Time: 2

Converges the souls through enchanting, raising the hero's own Ghost ATK by 20%% and Luck by 50 points while additionally raising the M. DMG Bonus by 20% for 120s

Aesir

• Soul Gathering - Ghost [Soul Gathering]'s Ghost ATK +2% additionally
• Soul Gathering - Mastery [Soul Gathering]'s fixed chant is reduced by 0.1s.
Soul Hunter
Lvl: 5 Passive

If the target carries a soul, Occultist's class skill deals 30% DMG additionally to the target

Soul Impact
Lvl: 10 Attack Magic CD: 1 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 38 Range: 5 Cast Time: 2.4

Casts souls to attack up to the target and 5 enemy units adjacent to the target, dealing M. ATK*1380% Ghost M. DMG. The damage goes higher as more enemy units are caught in the range

Aesir

• Soul Impact - Enhance [Soul Impact]'s DMG +10%
• Soul Impact - Eagle Eye [Soul Impact]'s cast distance +0.4 meters
Soul Judgement
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 30 sec Skill Delay: 2 sec SP: 400 Range: 6 Cast Time: 8

Drains the spirit of an enemy out and fixes it at the current location, and the hero can inherit some of the enemy's original attributes. Every time when the Mind Body is taking damage, 40% of the damage will be carried over to the original body. Mind Body cannot attack or move for 10s (Only valid against players)

Soul Judgement - Cooldown
Lvl: 4 Passive

[Soul Judgement]'s cooldown time is shortened by 4s

Soul Judgement - Purgatory
Lvl: 6 Passive

The received damage of [Soul Judgement]'s Mind Body from Demi-Human increases by 30%

Soul Reaping Ceremony
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 60 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 360 Range: 9 Cast Time: 3.5 Fixed Cast Time: 1

After a short while of casting, the damage from the hero and the teammates within 9m against L Size monsters increases by 10% and DMG against Demi-Human/Animal/Fish/Dragon increases by 10% for 60s

Aesir

• Soul Reaping Ceremony - Hunt [Soul Reaping Ceremony] Additionally increases the teammates' damage against small size monsters by +2%
• Soul Reaping Ceremony - Alert [Soul Reaping Ceremony] Additionally reduces the teammate's received damage from large size monsters by 2%
Soul Walker
Lvl: 5 Buff CD: 24 sec Skill Delay: 2 sec Cast Time: 4

Raises the hero's own Move SPD by 50% in 5s while becoming immune to physical damage. Casting it costs all Sp, and the cooldown duration is fixed and cannot be reduced

Aesir

• Soul Walker - Mastery [Soul Walker]'s Cast Delay reduces by 0.2s
Soul Whisper
Lvl: 10 Passive

Occultist's CT Variable reduces by 10%; When casting skills, it will render the hero's own friendly soul carrier to receive healing by (Hero's own INT + LUK)*100 points every time

Aesir

• Soul Whisper - Healing [Soul Whisper]'s healing amount +3%
Soul of the Blacksmith
Lvl: 5 Buff CD: 18 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 200 Range: 6

Summons the soul of the strongest Blacksmith in the past, applying upon the teammate with a [Over Thrust] effect and raising their Phy. ATK by 25% for 150s. One target can only be given with one soul, and one soul can only be given to one target. The CD duration is fixed and cannot be reduced

Soul of the Crusader
Lvl: 5 Buff CD: 22 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 200 Range: 6 Cast Time: 6

Summons the soul of the strongest Crusader in the past, applying it upon the enemy for 15s. During this period, the enemy is forced to sit down for 1s in every 3s (Invalid against Mini/Mvp). One target can only be given with one soul, and one soul can only be given to one target. The CD duration is fixed and cannot be reduced

Soul of the Ninja
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 18 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 300 Range: 6 Fixed Cast Time: 1

Recall the strongest Soul of the Ninja from the past and grant the effect to your teammate 【Izayoi】, reduce fixed casting time by 100%%, M.Pen. increases by 30%, and lasts for 35 seconds. Only one soul can be granted to the same target, and the same soul can only be granted to one target, Cooldown Time is fixed and cannot be reduced. When no teammate is selected, Soul of the Ninja will be granted to oneself.

Soul of the Priest
Lvl: 5 Buff CD: 22 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 200 Range: 6 Cast Time: 3

Summons the soul of the strongest priest in the past, applying [Lex Aeterna] upon the target one time every 2s for 10s. One target can only be given with one soul, and one soul can only be given to one target. The CD duration is fixed and cannot be reduced

Aesir

• Soul of the Priest - Exorcism [Soul of the Priest] Reduces enemy's Sp by 100 points every 2s
Soul of the Rogue
Lvl: 5 Buff CD: 20 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 200 Range: 6 Cast Time: 6

Summons the soul of the strongest Rogue in the past, applying it upon the enemy, causing the target to have a 10% chance per second to remove their weapon and headwear. The removing duration lasts for 5s. The soul lasts for 5s. One target can only be given with one soul, and one soul can only be given to one target. The CD duration is fixed and cannot be reduced

Soul of the Summoner
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 16 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 300 Range: 6 Cast Time: 4.5 Fixed Cast Time: 0.2

Summons the soul of the strongest summoner in the past, applying it upon the enemy, rendering the target and target's friendly units within 3m to receive [Cat Mint Powder] effect, reducing Move SPD by 30% and Phy. ATK and M. ATK by 20% for 15s (This effect can be stacked with Dolans' [Cat Mint Powder] effect). One target can only be given with one soul, and one soul can only be given to one target. The CD duration is fixed and cannot be reduced

Soul of the Taekwon
Lvl: 5 Buff CD: 21 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 200 Range: 6 Cast Time: 3

Summons the soul of the strongest Taekwon in the past, offering the ability of the martial artist upon the friendlies, allowing them to no longer need to spend Sp while raising Max Sp by 10% for 12s. One target can only be given with one soul, and one soul can only be given to one target. The CD duration is fixed and cannot be reduced

Aesir

• Soul of the Taekwon - Duration [Soul of the Taekwon]'s duration +1s
• Soul of the Taekwon - Strength [Soul of the Taekwon] Increases the teammate with 5 points of Str additionally
Soul of the Wizard
Lvl: 5 Buff CD: 20 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 200 Range: 6 Cast Time: 4

Summons the soul of the strongest wizard in the past, applying [White Barrier] effect upon the teammates, reducing Move SPD by 50% for 5s. One target can only be given with one soul, and one soul can only be given to one target. The CD duration is fixed and cannot be reduced

Spirit of Forgiveness
Lvl: 5 Passive

If there is a Mind Body created by the hero, when the Occultist is taking damage, 50% of the damage will be carried over to Mind Body (This part of the damage will not be passed to the original body anymore)

Spiritual Curse
Lvl: 10 Attack Magic CD: 2 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 100 Range: 6 Cast Time: 3.5 Fixed Cast Time: 0.2

Casts a spell upon a targeted area, dealing Dark M. DMG of M. ATK*2080% to enemies within a 4m radius

Aesir

• Spiritual Curse - Cooldown [Spiritual Curse] Cooldown Time -0.2s
• Spiritual Curse - Enhance [Spiritual Curse] DMG +6%
Spiritual Vision
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 42 sec Skill Delay: 1.5 sec SP: 200 Cast Time: 4 Fixed Cast Time: 0.5

After using this skill, all enemy targets' armor will be considered Ghost. You can reveal the hidden units nearby. Lasts 15 seconds

Spiritual Vision - Duration
Lvl: 6 Passive

[Spiritual Vision] duration extends by 6

Storm Gust
Lvl: 1 Attack Magic Range: 5

Deals (M.Atk100%) M.Dmg to the target

Warm Wind
Lvl: 1 Buff Skill Delay: 1 sec

Summons Wind of different attributes, converting the hero's own ATK into one type among Wind/Earth/Water/Fire/Holy/Shadow/Ghost, which lasts for 600s

Aesir

• Warm Wind - Element [Warm Wind] Wind, Earth, Water, Fire ATK +3%
Weight of Soul
Lvl: 6 Passive

Occultist's M. DMG Skill will additionally calculate the bonus and reduction of the size, raising the hero's own DMG Reduction against M Size monsters by 15%

Withered Curse
Lvl: 10 Buff CD: 28 sec Skill Delay: 2 sec SP: 250 Range: 6 Cast Time: 4.5 Fixed Cast Time: 0.5

Curses the enemies in the area. Enemies within a 5-meter range lose 1%% of Max HP per second and cannot be revived on-site upon death. Lasts 14 second(s). When it is effective on MVP and Mini Monsters, the HP loss will decrease to a fixed amount.

Withered Curse - Worsen
Lvl: 6 Passive

[Withered Curse]'s loss HP per second increases by 0.3% additionally

Soul of the Sage
Lvl: 1 Buff CD: 24 sec Skill Delay: 1 sec SP: 200 Cast Time: 4 Fixed Cast Time: 0.5

Recalls the soul of the strongest Sage in the past, applying them upon the hero, causing the hero to be in the [Earth Field] effect for a period of time. The CD duration is fixed and cannot be reduced

Lvl: 1 Buff CD: 60 sec Skill Delay: 2 sec SP: 300 Cast Time: 6 Fixed Cast Time: 1

Links up the teammates within 6m, causing them to spread the received damage while constantly healing them for a period of time. The CD time is fixed and cannot be reduced

Runes

Impedi-Mint Rune Def Buff Any
• [Soul of the Summoner]'s Move SPD (-1% ~ -10%) additionally
• [Soul of the Summoner] renders the Attack Spd to be (-1% ~ -10%) additionally
Soul Storm Rune Atk Buff Any
• [Soul Impact] DMG +(1% ~ 30%)
• [Soul Impact] Sp Cost (-10% ~ -30%)
Powerful Kaupe Rune Def Def Any
• [Kaupe] renders the hero's own Flee +(1 ~ 20) points
• [Kaupe] renders the hero's own Crit. Res. +(1 ~ 10) points
Soulhunting Night Rune Buff Buff Any
• [Soul Reaping Ceremony]'s fixed chant is (-0.1 ~ -0.5)s
• [Soul Reaping Ceremony]'s duration +(1 ~ 20)s
Swift Expansion Rune Def Buff Any
• [Eske]'s Cooldown Time (-0.1 ~ -5)s
• [Eske] renders the target's Phy. ATK to be (-1% ~ -15%) during the effective period
Spirit of Grievance Rune Atk Atk Any
• [Spiritual Curse] DMG +(1% ~ 30%)
• [Spiritual Curse] renders the target's M. DEF to be (-1% ~ -15%) for 5s
Blathering Mind Rune Def Buff Any
• [Soul Whisper] renders the hero's own Variable Cast to be (-1% ~ -10%)
• [Soul Whisper]'s healing amount +(1% ~ 20%)
Merciless Endless Suffering - Star Rune Atk Buff Buff
• [Soul Judgement]'s DMG Delivering Rate +(1% ~ 30%)
• [Soul Judgement] CD Time (-1 ~ -10)s
• [Soul Judgement]'s Mind Body will not be killed
Heart of Darkness - Star Rune Atk Def Buff
• [Heart of Darkness]'s DMG against friendly units +(1% ~ 20%)
• [Heart of Darkness] causes the target to have (1% ~ 30%) chance to fear the adjacent friendly units
• [Heart of Darkness] will also damage the target as well
All-Purpose Es - Star Rune Atk Def Buff
• [Esma] DMG against L Size +(1% ~ 30%)
• [Esma] The duration when the S Size units cannot attack +(0.5 ~ 3)s
• [Esma] DMG Bonus reduces from 5 points of Luck to 3 points
Intangible Rune Atk Def Buff
• DMG against enemies of all sizes +(1% ~ 10%)
• Received DMG of all sizes -(1% ~ 10%)
• Occultist's M. DMG doesn't count in the opponent's size reduction
Whitewall Guardian Rune Def Def Buff
• [Soul of the Wizard] causes the target's received Ghost DMG to be reduced by (1% ~ 30%)
• [Soul of the Wizard] causes the target's reduced Move SPD to be reduced by (1% ~ 30%)
• [Soul of the Wizard] duration +3s
Underworld Roamer Rune Def Def Def
• [Soul Walker] Move SPD +(1% ~ 30%)
• During the effect of [Soul Walker], the hero's received M. DMG reduces by (1% ~ 30%)
• After using [Soul Walker], the hero restores all Sp after 1s
Adversary of Magic Rune Buff Buff Buff
• You have obtained the skill [Soul of the Sage], which offers the hero with a Sage's Soul, allowing the hero to be under the effect of [Earth Field] for (5 ~ 10)s
• [Soul of the Sage] provides a (1% ~ 20%) chance of M. Flee
• [Soul of the Sage] constantly adds [Spell Effect Remove Buff] for the hero
Life Link Rune Def Def Buff
• You have obtained the skill [Soul Link], which can link up your teammates in the proximity, allowing them to evenly spread the received damage for (5 ~ 15)s
• The linked teammate heals by (0.1% ~ 3%)*Max HP per second
• The spread effect includes the hero as well
Thought Corruption Rune Atk Atk Buff
• [Mind Erosion] causes the target's CT Variable +(0.1 ~ 5)s
• [Mind Erosion] causes (-1% ~ -20%) CC effect Res to the target
• Attacking will add a [Mind Erosion] that lasts for 3s upon the enemy
Legerdemain Rune Atk Def Buff
• [Soul of the Rogue] Remove Chance +(1% ~ 10%)
• [Soul of the Rogue] Remove Time +(0.5 ~ 5)s
• [Soul of the Rogue] additionally disarm off-hand